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泉州春秋---锦程

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泉州:被遗忘的中国古港  

2014-05-24 19:11:00|  分类: 17、闽南人 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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泉州:被遗忘的中国古港 - 锦程 - 泉州春秋---锦程

Plenty of history and culture but no armies of tourists, this is China at its most authentic

她有着丰富的历史和文化,却没有泛滥的游人。这里是最真实的中国。


Quanzhou was the Shanghai of China ... 1,000 years ago.
1000年前,泉州就是中国的上海。

 

The city in southeast Fujian was known as the largest port in Asia during the Song (960-1279) and Yuan dynasties (1271-1368).
这个福建省东南部的城市,在宋朝(公元960—1279)和元朝(公元1271—1368)之时,因其是亚洲最大的港口而著名。

 

According to legend, Marco Polo bid farewell to the nation from this town in late 13th century and described it as "the Alexandria of the East."
据传说,马克·波罗于13世纪末,正是从这个港口城市离开中国。他将其誉为“东方的亚历山大港”。

 

Today, Quanzhou is a regular seaside city of 8 million. It’s off the radar even for Chinese travelers -- most head to Fujian’s tourism magnet Xiamen, 90 kilometers to the southwest.
如今,泉州是一个拥有800万人口的普通的海滨城市。她甚至根本不在中国旅行者的探索范围之内—大多数前往福建省的游客会被她西南方90公里外的另一座城市厦门所吸引。


But with an amiable age-old charms and a tangible Maritime Silk Road legacy, this is the place to see coastal China at its most local.
有着平民化的历史魅力,以及海上丝绸之路留下的有形的历史文化遗产,在泉州这个地方就可以把中国沿海的模样尽收眼底。

 

Here's how.
我们来看看为何这样说吧。

 

Maritime Museum
海上交通史博物馆

 

泉州:被遗忘的中国古港 - 锦程 - 泉州春秋---锦程

Exotic gravestones bear witness to Quanzhou's multicultural past.

异域风格的墓碑,见证了泉州多元文化的历史

 

This Soviet-style structure showcases Quanzhou’s fascinating maritime past under one roof. It’s the one of very few maritime-themed museums in China.
这个苏式风格的建筑物将泉州迷人的海交历史展示于一室,它是全中国为数极少的海事主题博物馆之一。


The building’s old wing houses an assortment of remains of Song Dynasty ships, which were dug out of Quanzhou Bay in the 1970s.
这一建筑一直作为保护20世纪70年代发掘于泉州湾的宋朝古船残骸的陈列室。

 

Chinese visitors often find the tombstones in the new wing too spooky, but this magnificent collection of historical gravestones and steles, most dating from the Yuan dynasty, is a reflection of the Quanzhou’s maritime heyday.
国内游客常常感觉墓碑陈列展室内气氛阴深,但是这些可以追溯至元朝的精美墓碑和碑刻,也正是泉州海外交通鼎盛时期的见证。


They were carved to commemorate the death of foreign merchants, of various cultures and religions, living in Quanzhou during Song and Yuan Dynasty, and are a true celebration of the city’s multi-culturalism.
这些墓碑是为了纪念外国商人的逝世而雕刻的。他们具有不同文化与宗教背景,曾在宋元时期居住在泉州。这些墓碑也可以视作对泉州多元文化历史的真切颂扬。


One interesting example is the angel reliefs on the Christian headstones. Resembling Asparas (feitian飞天; the curvaceous female spirits in Buddhist mythology), the six-wing Seraphim looks more like Siddhartha.
一个有趣的例子是基督教徒墓碑上的天使浮雕:类似于飞天(佛教神话中体态优美的女神)的六翼天使看起来更像释迦摩尼的形象。

 

The dancing Siva and the dignified Vishnu, on the other hand, were crafted by Indian masons in Quanzhou in the 13th century.
另一方面,跳着舞的湿婆和庄重的毗湿奴,都是印度的石匠于13世纪在泉州雕刻的。

 

Maritime Museum (泉州海外交通史博物馆), 425 Donghu Lu, Quanzhou, Fujian, 福建省泉州市东湖路425号; +86 595 2210 2655; open Tuesday-Sunday, 8:30 a.m.-5:30 p.m.; free admission
泉州海外交通史博物馆, 福建省泉州市东湖路425号,电话:+86 595 2210 2655,周二至周日 8:30 -17:30 免费

 

Ashab Mosque and Islamic Cemetery
清净寺和伊斯兰教圣墓

 

泉州:被遗忘的中国古港 - 锦程 - 泉州春秋---锦程
Stretching in front of a mosque, naturally.

在清真寺前自然地舒展身体


Muslim merchants have been coming to Quanzhou via the Maritime Silk Road route since the Tang dynasty (618-907).

自唐朝(公元618—907)始,就有穆斯林商人通过海上丝绸之路前往泉州。

 

The evidence of their clout and wealth is still clearly visible in the Ashab Mosque (aka Qingjing Mosque, or Mosque of Purity), which was built in 1009 by the Arabs.
他们当时的财富和政治影响力,如今在由阿拉伯人建于公元1009年的阿拉伯清真寺中,尚可找到清晰可见的证据。

 

This is China's only surviving mosque from the Song dynasty.
这是中国唯一幸存的一座宋代清真寺。

 

Although the structure is now defunct, the mosque’s former glory lingers in the towering arched gate and the seemingly impregnable walls.
尽管这个建筑现在已经不再承担昔日的功能,这座清真寺昔日辉煌萦绕在高耸的拱形门和看似坚不可摧的墙。

 

Both look particularly stunning at sunset.
这两者在日落之时的模样,看上去都相当的令人沉醉。

 

Not far from the Maritime Museum, the serene and overgrown Islamic cemetery is the final resting place of some mighty Muslims, including two of Mohammed's disciples.
在海外交通史博物馆的不远处,安宁而巨大的圣墓是包括两位穆罕默德的门徒在内的骄傲的穆斯林们的安息之处。


The intact Ming Dynasty steles crafted in both Chinese and Arabic managed to survive the Cultural Revolution.
明朝的刻有汉语和阿拉伯语的石柱,也设法在文化大革命的风波中得以完整地存留下来。

 

Ashab Mosque (清净寺), 108 Tumen Jie, Quanzhou, Fujian 福建省泉州市涂门街108号; +86 595 2219 3553; open daily 8 a.m.-5:30 p.m; RMB 3 (US 50 cents)
清真寺,福建省泉州市徐门街108号,电话:+86 595 2219 3553,每天8:00--17:30 对外开放,门票3元(50美分)

 

Islamic Cemetery (灵山伊斯兰教圣墓), at the corner of Donghu Lu and Lingshan Lu 福建省泉州市东湖路和灵山路路口 open daily, 9 a.m.-5:30 p.m.; free admission
灵山伊斯兰教圣墓,福建省泉州市东湖路和灵山路路口,每天9:00--17:30免费开放

 

Temple hopping
寺庙许愿


泉州:被遗忘的中国古港 - 锦程 - 泉州春秋---锦程

Pray to Guandi for good fortune (and weather).

向关帝祈福 保佑风调雨顺


A large number of temples dedicated to various deities dot throughout Quanzhou. They testify to the pious folk beliefs of Fujian's seafarers and their hopes for peace, health and fortune.
泉州遍布着为数众多的供奉不同神灵的寺庙。这些寺庙证明了福建航海者虔诚的民间信仰和他们对于和平、健康和幸运的渴望。

 

Being the commander of weather (and wealth), Guandi, the god of war, is one of the most popular deities among the fisherfolk as well as businessmen.
掌管天气(和财富)的战神关帝,是在渔民和商人之间都最受尊奉的神灵。

The most prosperous Guandi Temple in Quanzhou is a stone’s throw from the Ashab Mosque.
泉州香火最旺的关帝庙距离清净寺不远。

 

It’s hard to miss due to its sheer size (1,300 square meters) and the smoke billowing from massed incense sticks.
你不会错过它,因为它占地庞大(1300平方米),并且有着从众多香火聚集起来的烟。

 

Kai Yuan Temple is a popular Buddhist pilgrimage site that has been rebuilt many times. The shrine houses two eye-catching five-story pagodas from the 13th century, but neither can be climbed.
开元寺已重建多次,是最兴盛的佛教朝圣之地。开元寺已重建多次,是最兴盛的佛教朝圣之地。这圣地有两座13世纪始就伫立于此的五层的宝塔,现已禁止攀爬。

 

Behind the pagodas is a Song-dynasty ocean-going junk, which was excavated in Quanzhou's waters in 1974, as well as some painstakingly crafted Buddhist stone sculptures (also dating from the Song Dynasty).
在宝塔之后,是一艘于1974年在泉州水域发掘出的宋朝远洋航行帆船,和一些别具匠心的宋朝佛教石刻。

 

Chattering grannies and grandpas come to the banyan tree-flanked courtyard in the afternoons for their regular chitchat party.
健谈的老爷爷老奶奶,会在每个下午来到两侧长满榕树的庭院,开始他们日常的闲谈聚会。


The Yuan Dynasty Cao'an Manichean Temple standing alone on the hilly area south of the city center.
元朝的草庵摩尼教寺,突兀地伫立在城市中心以南的丘陵地带。

 

The peaked roof building is a precious relic from Manicheanism, an ancient religion which is, however, being revived in the mystical aspects of the New Age movement.
最高的建筑物是摩尼教遗留的珍贵遗产。要知道,这个古教在新世纪运动的神秘色彩中得以苏醒。

 

Kai Yuan Temple (开元寺), 176 Xi Jie, Quangzhou, Fujian 福建省泉州市西街176號; +86 595 2238 3285; open daily 7:30 a.m-7 p.m.; RMB 10
开元寺,福建省泉州市西街176号;电话: +86 595 2238 3285;每日 7:30—19:00对外开放,票价 10元

 

Guandi Temple (关帝庙), Tumen Jie, Quangzhou, Fujian 福建省泉州市涂门街, 8:30a.m-6 p.m., free admission
关帝庙,福建省泉州市涂门街, 每日8:30—18:00免费开放


Cao'an Manichean Temple (草庵摩尼教寺), Huabiaoshan, Luoshan Village, Jinjiang, Fujian 晋江罗山乡苏内村华表山麓; open daily, 8:30 a.m.-5:30 p.m.; free admission
草庵摩尼教寺,晋江罗山乡苏内村华表山麓;每日8:30--17:30免费开放

 

Quanzhou Old Town
泉州古城


泉州:被遗忘的中国古港 - 锦程 - 泉州春秋---锦程

Where China slows down.

中国慢下来的地方

 

Unlike the almighty commotion of people and traffic that characterizes most city centers in China, Quanzhou's downtown is relaxing.
没有中国大部分城市市中心的喧嚣的人群与车流,泉州的市中心是比较休闲的。

 

Ambling down its old streets and back alleys is like walking down the city's memory lane.
细步闲庭在泉州古老的大街小巷上,就像穿梭在这座城市古老的记忆中。


Lining both sides of Zhongshan Lu are well-restored covered balcony buildings (qilou, 骑楼), a distinctive form of southern China architecture from the Republican Era.
沿着中山路的两侧矗立着保存完好的骑楼——它是民国时期中国南方特有的建筑。


They can also be found in Guangdong and Hong Kong, but those in Quanzhou have clearly weathered the years and confronted the threat of the bulldozers.

它们也存在于广东和香港,只不过泉州的骑楼明净地经历过岁月的洗礼,曾直面过推土机的威胁。


A collage of trades like bridal services, hardware stores and goldsmith shops thrives below the balconies.

一大群商业店铺,像婚庆店、五金店和金饰店等,都在骑楼的露台的庇护下繁荣。


Just north of Zhongshan Lu are Dong Jie and Xi Jie, home to a plethora of time-honored small eateries that define leisure for Quanzhou locals.

与中山北路的交叉的东街和西街,是大量成立已久的小饮食店的安身之处。这些小店很好地诠释了泉州当地人对休闲生活理解。


Rice dumplings and oyster omelets are the city’s signature dishes.

粽子和蚵仔煎是这座城市的招牌菜。


Nanyin: The Sound of Quanzhou

南音:泉州之声


泉州:被遗忘的中国古港 - 锦程 - 泉州春秋---锦程

Classical Quanzhounese.

传统的闽南语


In the park where the Confucius Temple (Wen Miao 文庙) is located, amateur and professional musicians alike get together regularly to practice Nanyin (南音), one of the oldest music genres in China.

在文庙坐落处的公园里,业余爱好者和专业人士喜欢定期至此排演南音——中国最古老的音乐艺术形式之一。


These beautiful melodies were born as early as the Han Dynasty (202-220 B.C.) and have kept evolving, taking on new songs and themes over the centuries.

这些美妙的乐曲出现于汉朝(公元202--220)时期,多少个世纪以来一直在进化,不断从外界吸取新的曲目和主题。


The music is performed with traditional Chinese musical instruments like the bamboo flute and the Chinese lute (pipa). The ballads are sung in the local Minnan dialect. A song can last from a few minutes to over half an hour.

南音伴随着中国传统乐器比如竹笛和琵琶的演奏。曲子则是以闽南语演唱,时长从几分钟到超过半小时不等。


Two or three stages are set up every evening and the shows are free.

每天晚上都会有两个或三个舞台在表演,而观看表演则是免费的。


The groups playing outdoors are school-trained musicians. Groups playing inside a shelter all come from musical backgrounds, and love what they do.

在室外进行表演的是经过专门音乐教育的专业人士;在室内表演的是拥有一定音乐背景的人们。他们都很享受他们正在做的事情。


"We're not doing this for the money,” says a qipao-wearing solo singer who also plays the clappers. “We really like folk music and it's good to see other Nanyin enthusiasts meeting and practicing regularly to keep the traditions alive."

“我们并不是为了赚钱而演奏,”一位穿着旗袍、总是使用拍板的独唱者说,“我们非常喜欢民间音乐,并且乐于与其他南音爱好者相聚、定期演奏,以此保持传统艺术的生命力。”


Nanyin was enlisted by the UNESCO Intangible Heritage in 2003.

南音在2003年被联合国教科文组织列为世界非物质文化遗产。


Confucius Temple (文庙), Zhongshan Zhonglu, Quanzhou, Fujian 福建省泉州市中山中路, performance starts from 7:30 p.m. every evening, free admission

文庙,福建省泉州市中山中路,每天19:30 开始表演,观看免费


(原标题:Quanzhou: China’s forgotten historic port 作者:Chung-wah Chow)

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